1520 1st Commentary on Thomas Aquinas SUMMA by Lambert Campester Post Incunable

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Verkäufer: schilb_antiquarian_books (6,263) 99.6%, Artikelstandort: Columbia, Missouri, Versand nach: Worldwide, Artikelnummer: 292666605470 1520 1st Commentary on Thomas Aquinas SUMMA by Lambert Campester Post IncunableExceedingly Rare Printing w/Aquinas Woodcut in Study A very rare commentary on Thomas Aquinas doctrine by the dominican Lambert Campester. Thomas Aquinas, (1225 – 1274), also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, was an Italian Dominican friar and priest and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus" and "Doctor Communis". Very little is known of Lambert Campester, other than that he claimed to be a student of Erasmus. Main author: Thomas Aquinas, Lambert Campester Title: Problemata Diui Thome Aquinatis que quodlibeticas questiones inepte neoterici vocant ... Published: [Lugduni] : [impr. Jac. q. Franc. de Giunta et sociorum Florentini: in edibus Jac. Myt calchograhi], [1520] Language: Latin Notes & contents: · Text in gothic typeface, on two columns, many woodcuts decorated initials in the texts · Beautiful double colored woodcut title page depicting Thomas Aquinas in his study. FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE Wear: wear as seen in photos Binding: tight and secure vellum bindingPages: complete with all 156 pages; plus indexes, prefaces, and such; Publisher: [Lugduni] : [impr. Jac. q. Franc. de Giunta et sociorum Florentini: in edibus Jac. Myt calchograhi], [1520]Size: ~6in X 4.5in (15cm x 12cm) FREE SHIPPING WORLDWIDE Shipping:Very Fast. Very Safe. Free Shipping Worldwide. Satisfaction Guarantee:Customer satisfaction is our first priority. Notify us within 7 days of receiving your item and we will offer a full refund guarantee without reservation. $1595 Tommaso d'Aquino, OP (1225 – 7 March 1274), also known as Thomas Aquinas (/əˈkwaɪnəs/), was an Italian[3][4] Dominican friar and Catholic priest who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus" and "Doctor Communis".[5] He is heralded as the most influential Western medieval legal scholar and theologist. The name "Aquinas" identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino (in the present-day Lazio region), an area where his family held land until 1137.He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time,[6] Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle—whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity.[7] The works for which he is best known are the Summa Theologica and the Summa contra Gentiles. His commentaries on Sacred Scripture and on Aristotle form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy.[8]The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, and indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines (philosophy, Catholic theology, church history, liturgy, and canon law).[9]Also honored as a Doctor of the Church, Thomas is considered the Catholic Church's greatest theologian and philosopher. Pope Benedict XV declared: "This (Dominican) Order ... acquired new luster when the Church declared the teaching of Thomas to be her own and that Doctor, honored with the special praises of the Pontiffs, the master and patron of Catholic schools."[10]Contents [hide] 1 Biography1.1 Early life (1225–1244)1.2 Paris, Cologne, Albert Magnus, and first Paris regency (1245–1259)1.3 Naples, Orvieto, Rome (1259–1268)1.4 Quarrelsome third Paris regency (1269–1272)1.5 Final days and "straw" (1272–1274)1.6 Claims of levitation1.7 Condemnation of 12771.8 Canonization2 Philosophy2.1 Commentaries on Aristotle2.2 Epistemology2.3 Ethics2.4 Political order2.5 Psychology3 Theology3.1 Revelation3.1.1 Preserving nature within grace3.2 Creation3.3 Just war3.3.1 School of Salamanca3.4 Nature of God3.5 Nature of Sin3.6 Nature of the Trinity3.7 Prima causa – first cause3.8 Nature of Jesus Christ3.9 Goal of human life3.10 Treatment of heretics3.11 Thoughts on afterlife and resurrection4 Modern influence5 Criticism of Aquinas as philosopher6 See also7 Notes8 References9 Further reading10 External links10.1 Biographies10.2 On his thought10.3 By ThomasBiography[edit]Early life (1225–1244)[edit]Thomas was most probably born in the castle of Roccasecca, located in Aquino, old county of the Kingdom of Sicily (present-day Lazio region, Italy), c.1225[citation needed]. According to some authors[who?], he was born in the castle of his father, Landulf of Aquino. Though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means. As a knight in the service of King Roger II, he held the title miles. Thomas's mother, Theodora, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family.[11] Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the first Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino. While the rest of the family's sons pursued military careers,[12] the family intended for Thomas to follow his uncle into the abbacy;.[13] This would have been a normal career path for a younger son of southern Italian nobility.[14]At the age of five Thomas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in early 1239, Landulf and Theodora had Thomas enrolled at the studium generale (university) recently established by Frederick in Naples.[15] It was here that Thomas was probably introduced to Aristotle, Averroes and Maimonides, all of whom would influence his theological philosophy.[16] It was also during his study at Naples that Thomas came under the influence of John of St. Julian, a Dominican preacher in Naples, who was part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers.[17] There his teacher in arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music was Petrus de Ibernia.[18] The Castle of Monte San Giovanni CampanoAt the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the recently founded Dominican Order. Thomas's change of heart did not please his family.[19] In an attempt to prevent Theodora's interference in Thomas's choice, the Dominicans arranged to move Thomas to Rome, and from Rome, to Paris.[20] However, while on his journey to Rome, per Theodora's instructions, his brothers seized him as he was drinking from a spring and took him back to his parents at the castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano.[20]Thomas was held prisoner for about one year in the family castles at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration.[16] Political concerns prevented the Pope from ordering Thomas's release, which had the effect of extending Thomas's detention.[21] Thomas passed this time of trial tutoring his sisters and communicating with members of the Dominican Order.[16] Family members became desperate to dissuade Thomas, who remained determined to join the Dominicans. At one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron. That night two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate.[22] Diego Velázquez, Aquinas is girded by angels with a mystical belt of purity after his proof of chastityBy 1244, seeing that all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the family's dignity, arranging for Thomas to escape at night through his window. In her mind, a secret escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans. Thomas was sent first to Naples and then to Rome to meet Johannes von Wildeshausen, the Master General of the Dominican Order.[23]Paris, Cologne, Albert Magnus, and first Paris regency (1245–1259)[edit]In 1245 Thomas was sent to study at the Faculty of the Arts at the University of Paris, where he most likely met Dominican scholar Albertus Magnus,[24] then the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James in Paris.[25] When Albertus was sent by his superiors to teach at the new studium generale at Cologne in 1248,[24] Thomas followed him, declining Pope Innocent IV's offer to appoint him abbot of Monte Cassino as a Dominican.[13] Albertus then appointed the reluctant Thomas magister studentium.[14] Because Thomas was quiet and didn't speak much, some of his fellow students thought he was slow. But Albertus prophetically exclaimed: "You call him the dumb ox, but in his teaching he will one day produce such a bellowing that it will be heard throughout the world."[13]Thomas taught in Cologne as an apprentice professor (baccalaureus biblicus), instructing students on the books of the Old Testament and writing Expositio super Isaiam ad litteram (Literal Commentary on Isaiah), Postilla super Ieremiam (Commentary on Jeremiah) and Postilla super Threnos (Commentary on Lamentations).[26] Then in 1252 he returned to Paris to study for the master's degree in theology. He lectured on the Bible as an apprentice professor, and upon becoming a baccalaureus Sententiarum (bachelor of the Sentences)[27] devoted his final three years of study to commenting on Peter Lombard's Sentences. In the first of his four theological syntheses, Thomas composed a massive commentary on the Sentences entitled Scriptum super libros Sententiarium (Commentary on the Sentences). Aside from his masters writings, he wrote De ente et essentia (On Being and Essence) for his fellow Dominicans in Paris.[13]In the spring of 1256 Thomas was appointed regent master in theology at Paris and one of his first works upon assuming this office was Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem (Against Those Who Assail the Worship of God and Religion), defending the mendicant orders, which had come under attack by William of Saint-Amour.[28] During his tenure from 1256 to 1259, Thomas wrote numerous works, including: Questiones disputatae de veritate (Disputed Questions on Truth), a collection of twenty-nine disputed questions on aspects of faith and the human condition[29] prepared for the public university debates he presided over on Lent and Advent;[30] Quaestiones quodlibetales (Quodlibetal Questions), a collection of his responses to questions posed to him by the academic audience;[29] and both Expositio super librum Boethii De trinitate (Commentary on Boethius's De trinitate) and Expositio super librum Boethii De hebdomadibus (Commentary on Boethius's De hebdomadibus), commentaries on the works of 6th-century Roman philosopher Boethius.[31] By the end of his regency, Thomas was working on one of his most famous works, Summa contra Gentiles.[32]Naples, Orvieto, Rome (1259–1268)[edit]In 1259 Thomas completed his first regency at the studium generale and left Paris so that others in his order could gain this teaching experience. He returned to Naples where he was appointed as general preacher by the provincial chapter of 29 September 1260. In September 1261 he was called to Orvieto as conventual lector responsible for the pastoral formation of the friars unable to attend a studium generale. In Orvieto Thomas completed his Summa contra Gentiles, wrote the Catena aurea, (The Golden Chain),[33] and produced works for Pope Urban IV such as the liturgy for the newly created feast of Corpus Christi and the Contra errores graecorum (Against the Errors of the Greeks).[32]In February 1265 the newly elected Pope Clement IV summoned Aquinas to Rome to serve as papal theologian. This same year he was ordered by the Dominican Chapter of Agnani[34] to teach at the studium conventuale at the Roman convent of Santa Sabina, founded some years before, in 1222.[35] The studium at Santa Sabina now became an experiment for the Dominicans, the Order's first studium provinciale, an intermediate school between the studium conventuale and the studium generale. Prior to this time the Roman Province had offered no specialized education of any sort, no arts, no philosophy; only simple convent schools, with their basic courses in theology for resident friars, were functioning in Tuscany and the meridionale during the first several decades of the order's life. But the new studium at Santa Sabina was to be a school for the province", a studium provinciale.[36] Tolomeo da Lucca, an associate and early biographer of Aquinas, tells us that at the Santa Sabina studium Aquinas taught the full range of philosophical subjects, both moral and natural.[37]While at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale Thomas began his most famous work the Summa theologiae,[33] which he conceived of specifically as suited to beginning students: "Because a doctor of Catholic truth ought not only to teach the proficient, but to him pertains also to instruct beginners. As the Apostle says in 1 Corinthians 3:1–2, as to infants in Christ, I gave you milk to drink, not meat, our proposed intention in this work is to convey those things that pertain to the Christian religion in a way that is fitting to the instruction of beginners."[38] While there he also wrote a variety of other works like his unfinished Compendium Theologiae and Responsio ad fr. Ioannem Vercellensem de articulis 108 sumptis ex opere Petri de Tarentasia (Reply to Brother John of Vercelli Regarding 108 Articles Drawn from the Work of Peter of Tarentaise).[31] In his position as head of the studium Aquinas conducted a series of important disputations on the power of God, which he compiled into his De potentia.[39] Nicholas Brunacci [1240–1322] was among Aquinas's students at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale and later at the Paris studium generale. In November 1268 he was with Aquinas and his associate and secretary Reginald of Piperno, as they left Viterbo on their way to Paris to begin the academic year.[40] Another student of Aquinas's at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale was Blessed Tommasello da Perugia.[41]Aquinas remained at the studium at Santa Sabina from 1265 until he was called back to Paris in 1268 for a second teaching regency.[39] With his departure for Paris in 1268 and the passage of time the pedagogical activities of the studium provinciale at Santa Sabina were divided between two campuses. A new convent of the Order at the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva had a modest beginning in 1255 as a community for women converts, but grew rapidly in size and importance after being given over to the Dominicans friars in 1275.[42] In 1288 the theology component of the provincial curriculum for the education of the friars was relocated from the Santa Sabina studium provinciale to the studium conventuale at Santa Maria sopra Minerva, which was redesignated as a studium particularis theologiae.[43] This studium was transformed in the 16th century into the College of Saint Thomas (Latin: Collegium Divi Thomæ). In the 20th century the college was relocated to the convent of Saints Dominic and Sixtus and was transformed into the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.Quarrelsome third Paris regency (1269–1272)[edit] Triumph of St Thomas Aquinas, "Doctor Communis", between Plato and Aristotle, Benozzo Gozzoli,1471. Louvre, ParisIn 1268 the Dominican order assigned Thomas to be regent master at the University of Paris for a second time, a position he held until the spring of 1272. Part of the reason for this sudden reassignment appears to have arisen from the rise of "Averroism" or "radical Aristotelianism" in the universities. In response to these perceived evils, Thomas wrote two works, one of them being De unitate intellectus, contra Averroistas (On the Unity of Intellect, against the Averroists) in which he blasts Averroism as incompatible with Christian doctrine.[44] During his second regency, he finished the second part of the Summa and wrote De virtutibus and De aeternitate mundi,[39] the latter of which dealt with controversial Averroist and Aristotelian beginninglessness of the world.[45] Disputes with some important Franciscans such as Bonaventure and John Peckham conspired to make his second regency much more difficult and troubled than the first. A year before Thomas re-assumed the regency at the 1266–67 Paris disputations, Franciscan master William of Baglione accused Thomas of encouraging Averroists, calling him the "blind leader of the blind". Thomas called these individuals the murmurantes (Grumblers).[45] In reality, Thomas was deeply disturbed by the spread of Averroism and was angered when he discovered Siger of Brabant teaching Averroistic interpretations of Aristotle to Parisian students.[46] On 10 December 1270, the Bishop of Paris, Etienne Tempier, issued an edict condemning thirteen Aristotelian and Averroistic propositions as heretical and excommunicating anyone who continued to support them.[47] Many in the ecclesiastical community, the so-called Augustinians, were fearful that this introduction of Aristotelianism and the more extreme Averroism might somehow contaminate the purity of the Christian faith. In what appears to be an attempt to counteract the growing fear of Aristotelian thought, Thomas conducted a series of disputations between 1270 and 1272: De virtutibus in communi (On Virtues in General), De virtutibus cardinalibus (On Cardinal Virtues), De spe (On Hope). Condition: I am limited to 12 photos on eBay, but I have many more photos on my website...just ask, Original/Reproduction: Original, Year Printed: 15200000, Printing Year: 1520, Binding: Vellum, Subject: Religion & Spirituality, Original/Facsimile: Original, Language: Latin, Special Attributes: 1st Edition

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